But he could not avoid the realities of the day. Benedict XVI shocked the world in February when he became the first pope to resign in almost 600 years. Ratzinger’s father was a policeman and his mother a hotel cook. Share with your friends. In 2007 Benedict approved the decisions of the International Theological Commission, an advisory panel to the Vatican, that the traditional teaching of limbo was “unduly restrictive” and that unbaptized infants could be saved. He turned to theological studies after the war, helping found the influential journal Communio. Later that year he addressed the first Catholic-Muslim Forum, a three-day conference of Catholic theologians and Islamic scholars hosted by the Vatican to promote improved understanding between the two religions. Benedict XVI, bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. Ratzinger’s election as pope on the second day of the conclave was something of a surprise because of his status as a leading candidate; front-runners are almost never chosen, a fact reflected in the popular expression, “He who enters as a pope leaves as a cardinal.” His position with the cardinal electors was apparently secured by his long service to John Paul and his devotion to his predecessor’s teachings and ideals. Benedict XVI $4.19 - $4.99. The student protests and denunciations of Christianity that he witnessed while teaching at Tübingen reminded him of the tactics of the Nazis and gradually led him to adopt a more conservative theological perspective. He is best known for his rigid views on Catholicism and topics such as birth control and homosexuality. Benedict XVI $4.19 - $14.56. His choice of the name Benedict XVI recalled St. Benedict of Nursia, the patron saint of Europe and the founder of Western monasticism, as well as earlier popes of the same name, including Benedict XV (1914–22), who sought to mediate between the belligerents during World War I. Benedict XVI immediately took steps to continue John Paul’s dialogue with Judaism and Islam and with other Christian churches. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. In 2008 Benedict made his first visit as pope to the United States, where he spoke out against clerical sexual abuse and delivered an address at the United Nations. Pope decides against allowing married men to become priests. The Pope is… wait, let me confirm… yes, the Pope is a Catholic. Ratzinger returned to the seminary at the University of Munich in the fall of 1945 and was ordained a priest in 1951. Overview of the early life of Benedict XVI, with a detailed discussion of his involvement in the Hitler Youth. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. May you always experience the joy that comes from putting Christ at the center of your lives." Likewise, Pope Benedict XVI has been a great voice for peace in the conflicts in Iraq and throughout the Middle East. After the war, Ratzinger continued his education in the seminary; he was ordained a priest in June 1951. After about a year in the anti-aircraft unit, Ratzinger was drafted into the regular military. For more than two decades, Ratzinger was the pope’s closest adviser. Benedict stayed there while renovations were made to a convent, Mater Ecclesiae, in the southwest corner of Vatican City, which became his residence. The pope and his prefect shared a similar history, both having lived under totalitarian regimes, and their views concerning the church were substantially the same. 2005; 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009; 2010; 2011; 2012; 2013; Apostolic Constitutions Erwin Rommel was one of German's most popular generals during World War II, however,  after he was implicated in a plot to overthrow Hitler, Rommel took his life in 1944. Glaube - Wahrheit - Toleranz. According to several media reports, Benedict's decision centered on his old age, and physical and mental weakness. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Benedict-XVI, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops - Biography of Pope Benedict XVI, Benedict XVI - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Benedict XVI $3.99 - $15.73. He will continue to be known as Benedict XVI in his retirement and has been given the title of pope emeritus. Max Weber was a 19th-century German sociologist and one of the founders of modern sociology. Joseph Ratzinger was elected "Pope" Benedict XVI. Pope Benedict has stated that he chose his papal name to honor both Saint Benedict, the patron saint of Europe, and Pope Benedict XV, who, as pope during World War I, worked tirelessly to end the war. Elected Archbishop of Munich, 24 March 1977. Pope Benedict XVI was born Joseph Ratzinger on April 16, 1927, in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany, the youngest of three children. In 1943, Ratzinger and fellow seminarians were drafted into the anti-aircraft corps. The Pope is a unique celebrity. During his long academic career, Ratzinger wrote a number of important theological works, including Introduction to Christianity (1968) and Dogma and Revelation (1973). Pope Benedict XVI grew up under war reparations from World War I, as the Nazi regime was gaining power. Benedict walked through the doorway right after Francis, gingerly negotiating the two steps with the help of a cane and his longtime assistant. He became the first pope to resign since Pope … He contributed to a document that severely criticized the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office and that eventually led to its reorganization by Pope Paul VI (1963–78) as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Louis XVI was the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. Friendship with Jesus: Pope Benedict XVI Talks to Children on Their First Holy Communion. Das Christentum und die Weltreligionen. The Vatican also denounced the charge that, as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Benedict had been responsible for the Vatican's policy of covering up cases of sexual abuse, declaring that his handling of the cases showed “wisdom and firmness.”. With Francis there are obvious differences, but Guerriero emphasizes the personal bond, affection, and promised loyalty of Benedict to his successor. Pope Benedict XVI. On Dec. 25, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI revealed a new-style nativity scene in the Vatican's St. Peter's Square. He is the first pope from the Americas. In 1981, Pope John Paul II named Ratzinger prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. He was elevated to the papacy in 2005. In one statement, the pope explained, "I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise." It depicted Jesus' birth in Joseph's house. One of Benedict's final acts as a pope was a tweet to his Twitter following. He was captured by American soldiers and held as a prisoner of war for several months. https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/pope-benedict-xvi. In 2008, Benedict made his first visit as pope to the United States, where he spoke out against clerical sexual abuse and delivered an address at the United Nations. Updates? Retired Pope Benedict XVI broke his silence to reaffirm the value of priestly celibacy, just as Pope Francis weighs whether to allow married men to be ordained. In a pastoral letter, Benedict rebuked the bishops of the Irish church for a failure of leadership. One of the more progressive figures at the council, Ratzinger opposed those who hoped to limit reform. He was viewed as a reformer during this time. His family moved frequently among villages in rural Bavaria, a deeply Roman Catholic region in Germany, as the Nazis strengthened their stranglehold on Germany in the 1930s. He told TIME magazine in 1993 that while stationed near Hungary, he saw Hungarian Jews being sent to death camps. "War reparations (from World War I) weighed heavily on the German economy. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. News about Pope Benedict XVI, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. He made his first trip to the Western Hemisphere, visiting Brazil, where he canonized Father Antonio Galvão (1739–1822), the first native-born Brazilian saint. Dirk Benedict is an actor best known for his roles on 'The A-Team' and 'Battlestar Galactica.'. Ratzinger entered preparatory seminary in 1939. Traveling by helicopter, he departed the Vatican for the summer papal residence in Castel Gandolfo, Italy. In February 2013, Benedict XVI resigned from his position as pope. Pope Benedict XVI, who resigned as pope in 2013, made the comment in response to a question about what he had meant at his 2005 inauguration, when he urged Catholics to … During the early years of his papacy, Benedict visited several countries, including Turkey, where he met the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople in the hope of improving relations between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. On February 28 he formally resigned, taking the title pope emeritus. Benedict XVI, original name Joseph Alois Ratzinger, (born April 16, 1927, Marktl am Inn, Germany), bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church (2005–13). As a defense against the Nazi regime, Ratzinger threw himself into the Roman Catholic Church, "a citadel of truth and righteousness against the realm of atheism and deceit," he wrote. After World War II, he committed suicide to escape capture. In a public letter written in February 2018, Benedict stated that he was nearing the end of his life. Pope Benedict XVI - A Controversial Speech. But attention shifted quickly to the succession, and the election of the new Pope… Enjoy the best Pope Benedict XVI Quotes at BrainyQuote. Two years later, he earned his doctorate at the University of Munich. Award-winning British actor Benedict Cumberbatch is known for playing the titular detective of the BBC's 'Sherlock' and the sorcerer Doctor Strange in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Dear Brothers and Sisters, The Word of God this Sunday the second to the last Sunday of the liturgical year invites us to be vigilant and hardworking, in the expectation of the Lord's return at the end of time. Benedict XVI served as pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. He also overturned John Paul’s reform of the papal election process and restored the traditional practice when he declared that the election of a new pope requires a two-thirds majority of the cardinals attending the conclave. Independent scholar and adjunct instructor of history at the University of Delaware, Newark. He is best known for his rigid views on Catholicism and topics such as birth control and homosexuality. Omissions? The Facts About “Pope Benedict XVI” – Joseph Alois Ratzinger What You Need To Know About the Man who Claimed to be the Pope from 2005-2013 "Benedict XVI" On April 19, 2005, the German "cardinal" Fr. Europe. Hermann Göring was a leader of the Nazi Party. He issued new guidelines allowing greater use of the Latin mass—the order of the mass used before the reforms of the Second Vatican Council—and he published the encyclicals Deus caritas est (2005; “God Is Love”) and Spe salvi (2007; “Saved by Hope”). The youngest of three children, Ratzinger was six years old when the Nazis took power in Germany in 1933; his parents, who were staunch Catholics, were hostile to the regime. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected the 266th pope of the Roman Catholic Church in March 2013, becoming Pope Francis. Pope Benedict XVI showed his own admiration for Benedict XV following his election to the papacy on 19 April 2005. In 2010, allegations of sexual and physical abuse by parish priests and in parochial schools — particularly in Germany, Ireland and the United States — brought Benedict, and his role in the cases in Germany in particular, under close media scrutiny. He has said his unit was attacked by Allied forces that year, but he did not take part in that battle because a finger infection had kept him from learning to shoot. Remembering Pope Benedict XVI's resignation, six years later – ENN 2019-02-28 Pope Benedict XVI shocked the world by retiring six years ago today. His most recent book, Benedict XVI: A … Known for his rigid views on Catholicism, he sought a more inclusive image as pope. Heinrich Himmler was the commander of Adolf Hitler's Schutzstaffel, and later of the Gestapo in Nazi Germany. Later, he moved to the University of Muenster (1963-66) and took a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen. At the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), Ratzinger served as a chief theological expert to Cardinal Joseph Frings of Cologne, Germany. His work in theology attracted the attention of the archbishop of Cologne, Joseph Frings, who asked Ratzinger to serve as his expert assistant at the Second Vatican Council (1962–65). Benedict served his final day as pope on February 28, 2013. Ratzinger was sent home and then called up again before deserting in late April 1945. On November 25, 1981, he was made prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith by his friend Pope John Paul II (1978–2005), whom he had known well since 1977. In 2013 he became the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415. Benedict Arnold was an American Revolutionary War general best known for his defection from the Continental Army to the British side of the conflict in 1780. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Ratzinger became a professor at the University of Bonn in 1959. Pope Francis seemed taken aback by Benedict's frailty when he saw him at the Holy Door, and he asked the throngs of pilgrims in the piazza to send their prayers for his "good health." "Unemployment was rife," he wrote in his memoir, Milestones. The election of a new Pope is often accompanied by conjecture over his choice of papal name; it is widely believed that a Pope chooses the name of a predecessor whose teachings and legacy he wishes to continue. In 1941 he was compelled to join the Hitler Youth, and in 1943 he was drafted into the German military, serving in an antiaircraft unit in Bavaria before being sent to Hungary to set tank traps in 1945. He was married to Marie Antoinette and was executed for treason by guillotine in 1793. Further, he declared that one of the goals of his papacy would be to revitalize the Catholic church in Europe. As prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the Vatican office responsible for preserving Catholic doctrine and evaluating according to canon law the warrant for disciplinary action against clergy, Ratzinger earned a reputation as a hard-liner. Retired Pope Benedict XVI has published a letter which blames clerical sex abuse on the "all-out sexual freedom" of the 1960s. Benedictus XVI Joseph Ratzinger 19.IV.2005 - 28.II.2013. We … Despite his reputation, even his harshest critics recognized his intelligence and his ability to discuss controversial matters in an objective and disinterested spirit. Or should I say, the Pope is the Catholic. Alienated by the student protests at Tübingen, he returned to Bavaria, to the University of Regensburg. He said that cultural and historical change had led … Although he said he had prayed not to be chosen, Ratzinger humbly accepted his election on April 19, 2005, becoming at age 78 the oldest newly elected pope since Clement XII (1730–40). Ratzinger’s university years, however, brought about a transformation of his views. St Peter's Square Sunday, 16 November 2008 . Americas. His father was a determined anti-Nazi, Ratzinger wrote. Ratzinger defended and reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality and inter-religious dialogue. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. In February 2013 Benedict announced that he would resign at the end of that month, citing age and health concerns. In 1972, Ratzinger helped found the theological journal Communio, which became one of the most important journals of Catholic thought. For years after his unexpected resignation, Pope Benedict live in silence in the Vatican. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Benedict has written a total of 66 books. In 2010 allegations of sexual and physical abuse by parish priests and in parochial schools—particularly in Germany, Ireland, and the United States—brought Benedict, and his role in the cases in Germany in particular, under close media scrutiny. In March 1977 Ratzinger was appointed archbishop of Munich and Freising by Paul VI, who bestowed the cardinal’s hat on him three months later. Pope Benedict XVI. The pope bids a final farewell to a crowd outside the Vatican, leaves for papel summer residence in Castel Gandolfo. In 1969 he moved to the University of Regensburg, where he later became vice president. He went on to state, "In today's world, subject to so many rapid changes and shaken by questions of deep relevance for the life of faith, in order to govern the bark of St. Peter and proclaim the gospel, both strength of mind and body are necessary, strength which in the last few months has deteriorated in me to the extent that I have had to recognize my incapacity to adequately fulfill the ministry entrusted to me... For this reason, and well aware of the seriousness of this act, with full freedom, I declare that I renounce the ministry of bishop of Rome, successor of St. His father was a policeman and his mother a hotel cook (before she married). He condemned liberation theology and suppressed more-liberal theologians such as the Brazilian Leonardo Boff and the American Charles Curran. “I can only say that with the slow waning of my physical forces, I’m on a pilgrimage towards home," he wrote, adding: "It is a great gift for me to be surrounded, on this last stretch of this sometimes tiring road, by a degree of love and goodwill that I could never have imagined.”. On a personal level, I wish him well. He was condemned to hang as a war criminal in 1946 but took his own life instead. This page is dedicated to demonstrating that the past and present beliefs and actions… In a pastoral letter, Benedict rebuked the bishops of the Irish church for a failure of leadership. BENEDICT XVI. In March 1977, he was named archbishop of Munich and Freising and, three months later, was named a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. The crowd responded with cheers and applause. Ratzinger was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. That same year, to foster relations and understanding between religions, Benedict addressed the first Catholic-Muslim Forum, a three-day conference of Catholic theologians and Islamic scholars. Last Testament: In His Own Words. Former pope Benedict XVI reported to be seriously ill. Ex-pontiff, 93, has shingles after being in poor health for some time, says German newspaper Published: 3 Aug 2020 . Benedict XVI leaving the balcony of Castel Gandolfo after giving his final benediction before retiring from the papacy, 2013. The homily he delivered as part of the funeral proceedings for the pope also increased his stature. For more than a quarter of a century, Peter Seewald (1954) has accompanied Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger/Benedict XVI, the first pope emeritus in centuries. And last Testament: in his early teens after membership became mandatory 1941! 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